Tuesday, November 3, 2009

Distribution and Production

Distribution and Production Though almost every state and union territory in India has some fish production, nearly 97 per cent of the country's total production of marine fish and 77 per cent of inland water fish is raised in Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Gujarat. Only a small production is accounted for by the land-locked states.

Kerala Kerala is the foremost fish producing state in India, contributing about one-fifth of the country's total fish production. Kochi, Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Kozhikode, Beypore, Azhikode, Ponnani, Kannur, Baliapatnam and Vizhinjam are leading centres of fish production. Besides these, there are over 250 villages studded along the 590-km-long coastline. Oil sardines, prawns, horse mackerel, soles, lactarius and shark are the most important marine fisheries. The inland fisheries abound in prawns, barbus, darius, mullet, etroplus and murrels.
About 60 per cent of the total fish production is consume, within the state.

Karnataka produces about 9 per cent of India's tota production of fish. Mangalore, Karwar, Ankola, Kumta Honawar, Bhatkal, Majali, Bingi are the leading centres oj production. Sardines, mackerel, seer, sharks and prawns arE among the principal fish varieties caught. Inland fishing is most intensive in the creeks of Netravati, Sharavati and Kali rivers.

Maharashtra contributes about 12 per cent to the annual total output of fish. Mumbai, Ratnagiri, Alibag. Kolaba and Bassein are leading centres of .production. Indian salmon, Bombay duck, white pomfret, black pomfret. jew fish, tunnies, grey mullet, mackerel, eel and shark are the chief varieties of fish of off-coast Maharashtra. Estuarine fisheries have been developed in Mahim and other creeks.

Gujarat with over 45 important fishing ports and a large number of fishing villages studded along the coast, contributes about 9 per cent of India's total fish production. Kandla, Porbandar, Dwarka, Jafferabad and Umbergaon are the leading centres of fish production in the state. Bombay duck, pomfret, jew fish, Indian salmon, tunnies, grey mullet, mackerel, eel and shark are among the principal varieties of fish caught.

Andhra Pradesh is the largest marine fish producing state along the east coast, contributing about ten per cent to the total annual output of fish. Visakhapatnam, Masulipatnam and Kakinada are the largest centres of fish production. Oil sardine, mackerel, silver bellies, ribbon fish, catfish are among the important fish vat:ieties caught.

Most of the production in West Bengal and Orissa is of the inland fish. The contribution of these two states to the total national production of fish is just two per cent. Pomfret, bhetti, mackerel, prawn, topsi, hilsa, chanda, bhola, Bombay duck, rock cod and phasa are among the prominent fish varieties caught. The brackish waters of the Chilka lake in Orissa and the mouth of Ganga in West Bengal represent some of the most intensely fished areas. The per capita consumption of fish in West Bengal is one of the highest in India.

Fishing is common in almost every village along the coast and around the creeks of the Zuari, Mandovi, Sal and Arachol rivers in Goa. Mackerel, pomfret, shrimp, sardine, prawn are among the principal varieties caught. Marmagao is the largest centre of fis,h production in Goa.
Tamil Nadu has a long coast line of about 1,000 km facilitating the production of fish on large scale. Tamil Na.du's contribution to the total national output of fish is about 21 per cent. Chennai is the largest centre of fish production in the state. Tuticorn, Ennore, Cuddalore, Mandapam and Nagapattinam are the other important fish production centres. Mackerel, silver bellies, ribbon fish, catfish and soles are the main varieties of marine fish caught.

The Ganga and its tributaries form major inland fisheries in Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal. Besides these rivers, there are a large number of jheels, ponds and tanks in these states where fish are caught in a sizeable proportion. Carp varieties such as Labeo rohita, Labeo calbasu, Labeo gOl1ius, mrigala and catla, minor carps and minnow are the main types of fish caught. In Punjab. Haryana and Himachal Pradesh, the Satluj, Ravi and Beas and host of other small rivers and reservoirs are leading fishing grounds. The Brahmaputra river supports a rich fishery in Assam, though it is not yet fully exploited. Carps, catfish, hi/sa are the chief varieties of fish found.

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